SPECIAL ASSESSMENT TAX: Definition & How It Works In Real Estate

Special assessment tax
Photograph of tax forms with miniature house and money, selective focus.

You may not be aware that, in addition to standard taxes, you may be subject to special assessment tax. By levying property taxes against residents who may profit from the project’s creation, a special assessment helps fund public improvement projects. “What is a special assessment in real estate?” you might wonder.
Let’s clear things up and look at the details about HOA special assessment tax.

What Is a Special Assessment Tax?

A special assessment tax is a surtax imposed on property owners to pay particular local infrastructure projects such as road building and maintenance. The tax is only levied on residents of the community who will benefit from the initiative. The special assessment district is the name given to that area.

Any special assessment tax on a property that a buyer is contemplating should be known to them. Special assessments are usually imposed for a defined period of time and are not tax-deductible.

Special assessment taxes, like property taxes, are dependent on the assessed value of the home.

Liens for Special Assessment Tax

Each home or property tax bill is assessed a special tax in the form of a special assessment lien with a low-interest rate by the state or local government.

You must get an official assessment search or a municipal lien request from the local government before purchasing a residence. Find out as much as you can about the assessment role. After all, an unpaid assessment can be discovered on a property. Here’s how it might work: If a residence changes hands after an assessment is issued, the new owners may be unaware of the assessment.

Liens are legal instruments that help local governments defend their interests by ensuring that property owners pay their special assessments. A lien is a legal claim that an entity has against a piece of property.

Special Assessments Examples

Special evaluations can take several forms, including:

  • Infrastructure: Water and sewer lines, streets, highways, and sidewalk pavement, as well as recycling and water management, are all examples of public improvements that can be funded using special assessment taxes.
  • Mello-Roos: A Mello-Roos is a California special assessment district formed to fund infrastructure projects. To fund the project, a county or city issues bonds and property owners within the district pay the bond debt as a tax.
  • Nuisance abatement: A special assessment may be used to pay nuisance abatement, which may include the use of zoning, construction and fire codes, and other methods to improve a community’s quality of life and safety.
  • Buildings and construction that are open to the public, such as malls, courtyards, and plazas, as well as pedestrian skyways and concourses, may be deemed special assessments.
  • Special assessments may be required for fire and police protection and systems on rare occasions.
  • Parks, paths, playgrounds, playing fields, skateboard parks, and open spaces may be considered for a special assessment.

How Do Special Assessments Work?

The following is how special assessments for residential areas outside of HOA communities work:

#1. A special assessment district is created by a government agency.

Cities, counties, and other state and local government organizations designate specified neighborhoods or sections within a municipality as “special assessment districts” to help pay for capital improvement projects. The assignment is based on whether or not the improvement would provide direct and special advantages to a property. The assessment does not apply to public property inside the assessment district, such as schools, parks, or administrative buildings.

#2. A resolution is drafted by the agency.

The agency that wishes to create the assessment district passes a resolution of intention, which includes the assessment district’s name, the planned improvement, and a date and time for a public hearing. As part of the assessment process, the agency sends ballots to every property owner in the proposed district and demands an engineer’s report.

#3. A public hearing is called by the agency.

At a public hearing, property owners join the county board, city council, or agency legislative body to hear an engineer’s report. The report includes a public improvement assessment as well as the property tax rate that the agency will charge each property owner. The owners of the properties will turn in their completed ballots. The agency will allocate an assessment district if a majority of people vote in favor of the idea. The agency does, however, allow taxpayers to contest the assessment within a certain time frame and, if necessary, seek legal guidance.

#4. Taxes are levied and collected.

Each home or property tax bill will thereafter be assigned a special tax in the form of a lien with a suitable interest rate. Failure to pay the tax may result in the agency attempting to foreclose on the lien.

The Special Assessment District (SAD)

A special assessment tax, on the other hand, cannot be imposed on an entire municipality. If a substantial subdivision is established in an area of town that was previously undeveloped, the municipality may designate that new neighborhood as a special assessment district. The tax monies generated would be used to pay critical infrastructure investments such as access roads and sewer lines that neither the municipality nor the developer wants to pay.

A search of the local county assessor’s records will reveal the amount of special assessment taxes on a property and what they are utilized for.

Special assessments are imposed by which organizations?

Special assessments are mostly levied by state and municipal governments. Owners of condominiums, townhouses, and other properties managed by a homeowners’ association (HOA) or condominium owners’ association (COA) may be subject to special assessments set by the board of directors to fund special public improvements.

HOAs are required by state civil codes to include fees for special and routine assessments in their governing agreements, often known as “covenants, conditions, and restrictions” (CC&Rs). (Assessments may also be listed in the property’s sale contract by lenders.) Community development projects, such as the construction of new common areas or landscaping, or unforeseen repairs due to natural disasters that monthly dues do not cover, are examples of HOA special assessments.

HOA special assessments are contentious because they are unpredictable and add to the list of additional costs and taxes that come with living in such a community.

How Special Assessment in HOAs Work

Homeowners’ association special assessments work similarly to residential assessment districts, with the exception that the HOA’s board, rather than a government body, assesses the tax. Most HOA boards set aside a percentage of HOA fees in a reserve account or reserve funds to handle significant or unexpected expenses like building a new clubhouse or extensive repairs following an emergency.

If the reserve funds are insufficient to cover such events, either owing to a shortfall or a budgeting error, the HOA board must pay a special assessment on each property owner.

The covenants, regulations, and restrictions of the HOA will describe how they collect these fees; many HOAs require consent from a majority of a quorum of members, while others require early notification. Failure to pay the special assessment in monthly or annual payments, on the other hand, will result in a lien on the property and possibly foreclosure.

What impact do special assessments have on buyers, sellers, investors, and current homeowners?

If you intend to sell a property with a special assessment, your realtor will need to inform potential purchasers ahead of time, because the cost is split between the buyer and the seller and does not go back to the association.

The following are the major questions that a buyer should ask the seller’s agent and/or neighborhood association management right away:

  • Is there a special assessment going on right now?
  • Is a special assessment conceivable or pending?
  • How much does it cost?
  • What is its purpose of it?
  • When and how will you have to pay for it?
  • And, most crucially, is the vendor willing to work out a payment plan with you?

When are special assessments a cause for concern?

When special assessments are required due to insufficient reserves, it can mean one of two things:

  • Within the HOA, there is a lack of budgeting.
  • Owners that are irresponsible and do not pay their monthly payments

This is a red flag in either case. Even if you sympathize with the owners and wish you didn’t have to pay, it’s a condition of getting a mortgage on a property with these fees. Many residents refuse to pay them, and the HOA and/or management business are unable to collect them, indicating that the community is badly managed.

Special assessments may signal that the condo is unsuitable for traditional loans, which is more than simply a red flag. A conventional loan will not be approved if the lender examines the condo’s financials and concludes that the condo reserves are low or that too many homeowners are in arrears on their fees.

How do you prepare for a special assessment?

The uncomfortable truth is that neither you nor the association can truly plan. Even a knowledgeable and well-run board may need to impose a special assessment if catastrophic weather damage or concealed mold causes a major problem in the complex that the association’s insurance won’t cover.

However, because not all boards are as intelligent or well-run as others, many are tripped up by their own poor budgeting. As a result, you should always want to view the financial accounts or, at the very least, the budget reserves for the development you’re considering purchasing. You’ll want to make sure that the other homeowners have been paying their monthly dues and that the reserve fund is sufficient to pay for any unexpected repairs or special projects. Before accepting a loan for a condo, the lender will actually ask for this information and check to see how many homeowners are behind on their monthly dues.

Once you are a homeowner

Walking away is no longer an option once you’ve purchased, as it is with many other costly and laborious aspects of homeownership. All you can do is keep an eye out for potential improvements and speak up at association meetings.

One of the most frustrating aspects of special assessments is that there is no real fee range. A special assessment to renovate a workout facility in a large building may cost households $500 per month for five months, paid at $100 per month. After a 10-year storm, a special assessment for extensive repairs to an ancient, large development might cost $500,000.

While a community vote on a project and special assessment is occasionally required, especially if the costs exceed a certain threshold, smaller special assessments are not always the topic of much prior discussion. Because these are both legal requirements, there will be a notice in the community newsletter or bulletin board and a board vote, but lesser assessments are often settled swiftly. If you don’t attend board meetings, you may only learn about it when you receive a charge.

How do monthly fees and special assessments relate to one another?

People often choose lower monthly HOA fees when looking for a home. HOA fees have a significant impact on how much house you can buy because they are often added on top of your monthly PITI (Principal, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance) to determine your monthly mortgage payment. So, the lesser the number, the better.

Except that it isn’t always the case, because if monthly fees are too low, the HOA won’t be able to accumulate adequate reserves to pay for big repairs or special projects that will inevitably be required.

As a result, some residents believe that paying higher monthly HOA fees is preferable since they can rest assured that the organization will have sufficient reserves to pay for any repairs or building renovations without putting additional financial strain on the homeowners.

Except that this isn’t always the case. If the building management hasn’t been able to collect HOA fees from a considerable number of homeowners, there may still be insufficient reserves, which means a special assessment may be required, even for those who have paid on time.

Is it Possible to Deduct Special Assessment Taxes?

You might be wondering if special assessments qualify for a property tax deduction.

Property owners can deduct the expense of property taxes on their federal income tax returns, thanks to the federal government. This does not, however, include special assessments. Only special assessment districts are subject to special assessment taxes.

However, depending on the district’s boundaries, a special assessment tax may be deducted. Any other purpose is not deductible, except for maintenance, repairs, or enhancements.

What are the Special Assessment Tax Exemptions?

Taxes on special assessments may increase the amount of money you pay in taxes. Because of your age, disability, or other conditions, you may qualify for property tax exemptions. Consult a local tax expert for advice on how to reduce your tax burden.


Many homeowners are caught off guard by special assessment taxes. “What is a special assessment in real estate?” you might wonder. “What is a special assessment tax?” and “What is a special assessment tax?”

The short explanation is that property owners pay a special assessment tax to fund programs that benefit the neighborhood’s property. It has nothing to do with an HOA special assessment.

When a state or municipal authority issues a resolution of intent for a project and schedules a public hearing, special assessment taxes are normally imposed. Before taxes are collected by the municipality based on the assessed value of residences through a special assessment district, taxpayers can vote and opt to protest the tax and obtain legal counsel.

If you’re thinking about buying a house, make sure to look into special assessment real estate first.

Finally, consult a tax professional about property tax discounts and exemptions, as well as HOA special assessments.

Special Assessment Tax FAQs

Can you capitalize special assessments?

You can deduct the special assessment on your rental property as a rental expense if the assessment is for an expense of repairs and upkeep. If your assessment is for an upgrade (such as a new roof on a condominium), you must capitalize and depreciate it.

What is a special assessment bond?

Special assessment bonds are general obligation bonds that are widely issued to support development projects, with the interest paid by taxes levied specifically on the project’s beneficiaries. The interest on special assessment bonds is free from federal, state, and local taxes.

What is special assessment case?

A special assessment is a levy levied by public bodies against real estate parcels in the United States to fund certain public projects. This tax is imposed in a geographical area called a special assessment district (SAD).

What is special assessment tax NYC?

Hazardous waste generated in New York is subject to special assessments. If you produce hazardous waste in New York, you must file quarterly returns with the New York State Tax Department and pay the applicable assessments.

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